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 c868彩票网址 >> 政治学
中国地方人大的履职管理驱动型创新:理论与案例
2020年10月15日 09:19 来源:《四川大学学报:哲学社会科学版》2020年第2期 作者:何俊志 字号
2020年10月15日 09:19
来源:《四川大学学报:哲学社会科学版》2020年第2期 作者:何俊志

内容摘要:

关键词:

作者简介:

 

  作者简介:何俊志,中山大学政治与公共事务管理学院教授,(广州 510275)。

  内容提要:对于改革开放以来中国地方人大的功能性变迁,先前的研究从国家中心论、社会中心论和地方能动性的视角提供了基本的理论解释框架。通过对中国地方各级人大在常委会设立以来的工作创新模式进行总结,可以呈现出一种履职管理驱动型创新的理论模式。通过对两个差异性案例的比较可以确证,履职管理驱动型创新不但可以成为一种解释中国地方人大功能性成长的新视角,而且还有助于在一个更大的比较视野下观察中国人大制度的变迁模式。

  关 键 词:地方人大/履职管理/创新

  标题注释:基金项目:国家社会科学基金重点项目“人大代表选举制度改革的实证研究与理论阐释”(17AZZ005)

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  一、理解中国地方人大成长的三种视角

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  二、中国地方人大的履职管理驱动型创新

  GENJUZHONGGUOXIANFAHEXIANGGUANFALVDEGUIDING,WOMENKEYIBAXIANGJIYISHANGDEDIFANGGEJIRENDADOUKANCHENGSHIYIGESHUANGCENGDEDAIYITIXI。ZAIYIGEMEINIANDOUZHISHAOHUIZHAOKAIYICIDEFEICHANGDUANZANDEHUIYIQIXIANNEI,DIFANGGEJIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZUOWEIDIFANGGEJIQUANLIJIGUANDEDIWEIERCUNZAI;ZAIDAIBIAODAHUIBIHUIQIJIAN,MEILIANGGEYUEZHAOKAIYICIDERENDACHANGWEIHUIZUOWEIDAIBIAODAHUIDECHANGSHEJIGUANERCUNZAI。ZAIZHEIGESHUANGCENGJIEGOUZHONG,GEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIZAIDAIBIAODAHUIBIHUIQIJIANBUDANYAOXINGSHIZUOWEIDAIBIAODAHUICHANGSHEJIGUANDEZHIQUAN,ERQIEHAIYAOFUZELINGDAOHUOZHEZHUCHIBENJIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDAIBIAODEXUANJU,ZHAOJIBENJIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHUIYI,HAIYAOSHELIGONGZUOJIGOUZUZHIRENDADAIBIAOZAIBIHUIQIJIANKAIZHANHUODONG。YUCITONGSHI,ZHONGGUODEDAIBIAOFAZAISHEDINGGEJIRENDADAIBIAODEQUANLIHEYIWUSHI,YEJIANGJIJICANJIATONGYIZUZHIDESHICHA、ZHUANTIDIAOYAN、ZHIFAJIANCHADENGLVZHIHUODONG,SHEDINGWEIRENDADAIBIAODEYIXIANGJIBENYIWU。YINCI,ZAIDAIBIAODAHUIBIHUIQIJIAN,DIFANGRENDADEZHUYAOHUODONGNEIRONGJIUKEYIFENCHENGLIANGZHONG:DIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIDEDANDUHUODONGHEDIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIZUZHIHELIANXIDAIBIAOYIQIKAIZHANDEHUODONG。

c868彩票网址  ZAI1979NIANZHIQIAN,ZHONGGUODEDIFANGGEJIRENDAZAIBIHUIQIJIANDOUMEIYOUSHELICHANGWEIHUI。1979NIANDEDIFANGZUZHIFAKAISHIGUIDINGZAIXIANJIYISHANGDEDIFANGGEJIRENDASHELICHANGWEIHUI。GENJU1979NIANDEDIFANGZUZHIERSHELIDEDIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUI,ZAICHUCHUANGSHIQIMIANLINDELIANGGEJIBENWENTISHI:RENDADAIBIAODELVZHIZHUANGKUANGBULIXIANGHERENDACHANGWEIHUIZISHENNENGLIJIAORUO。ZICHENGLIZHISHIKAISHI,ZHONGGUODEDIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIJIUKAISHIWEIMIBUZHEILIANGDADUANBANERBUDUANJINXINGGEZHONGTANSUO,ZHEIXIETANSUOYEJIUGOUCHENGLEDIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUICHUANGXINDEJIBENDONGLI。

c868彩票网址  DUIYUCHUCHUANGSHIQIDEDIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIERYAN,ZAIZHAOJIDIFANGRENDADAIBIAODAHUIYIZHIHOU,YIJIANZHIDAIBIAOWEITESEDERENDADAIBIAOZAIYIGEFEICHANGDUANZANDEHUIYIQIJIANYAOSHUNLIWANCHENGDAIBIAODAHUIDEGEXIANGYICHENG,SHIYIXIANGFEICHANGJIANNANDERENWU。ZAIDAIBIAODAHUIBIHUIQIJIAN,RUGUOBUJIEZHUYUDUIDAIBIAOHUODONGDEZUZHI,YIGENENGLIBUZUDECHANGWEIHUIXIANRANYENANYICHENGDANQIYINGYOUDEGEXIANGZHINENG。MIANDUIZHEIYIJIBENDEXINGSHI,CHUCHUANGSHIQIDEDIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUISUOZUODESHOUYAOGONGZUO,JIUSHIJINLIANGLIYONGLINGDAOHEZHUCHIXUANJUGONGZUODEJIHUI,CHUANGZAOTIAOJIANRANGYIXIEJUBEIYIDINGLVZHINENGLIDEHOUXUANRENDANGXUANWEIBENJIRENDADAIBIAO。ZAIDAIBIAODANGXUANZHIHOU,ZAILIYONGGEZHONGJIHUIDUIDAIBIAODELVZHINENGLIKAIZHANJIBENDEPEIXUN。DANSHI,YOUYUZHONGGUOGEJIRENDADAIBIAODEGOUCHENG,ZAIXUANJUZHIQIANYIJINGYOUFALVHEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUISHEDINGLEYIGEGUDINGDEBILIJIEGOU。ZAIZHEIGEBILIJIEGOUZHIXIA,TONGJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIZAIHOUXUANRENZHINEIDETIAOXUANKONGJIANFEICHANGYOUXIAN。TONGSHI,YOUYURENDACHANGWEIHUIZISHENNENGLIDEXIANZHI,DAIBIAOPEIXUNSUOQIDEZUOYONGYEJIQIYOUXIAN。JISHIJINGGUOLEYIDINGDETIAOXUANHEPEIXUN,YOUYUGEJIRENDADAIBIAOZAIDAIBIAODAHUIBIHUIQIJIANDOUYOUZIJIDEBENZHIGONGZUO,BUKENENGJIANGTAIDUODEJINGLITOURUDAORENDAGONGZUOZHIZHONG。ERQIEYUQITAGUOJIABUTONGDESHI,YOUYUZHONGGUOGEJIRENDADAIBIAODEXUANJUGUOCHENGSHIYIGEZISHANGERXIADEZUZHITIAOXUANHEZIXIAERSHANGDETOUPIAOXIANGJIEHEDEGUOCHENG,DAIBIAODELIANRENBINGBUWANQUANQUJUEYUXUANMINDUIDAIBIAOLVZHIZHUANGKUANGDEPINGJIA,DAIBIAODELIANRENHENNANXIANGQITAGUOJIANEIYANGGOUCHENGJIJILVZHIDEDONGJI。

  MIANDUIZHEIZHONGXIANSHIKUNNAN,CHULEZAIDAIBIAOTIAOXUANHEPEIXUNFANGMIANYOUSUOZUOZHIWAI,CHUCHUANGSHIQIDEDIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIPUBIANCAIYONGDEYIZHONGCELVEJIUSHI,ZHUBUTANSUOCHUYITAOPINGJIAHEJILIJIZHI,YIJILIYIXIERENDADAIBIAONENGGOUGENGJIAJIJIZHUDONGDITOURUDAORENDAGONGZUOZHIZHONG。ZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONG,JIANZHIDAIBIAOWEIDIFANGRENDADEZHENGCHANGYUNZUOSUODAILAIDEDIYIGETIAOZHANSHI,YIXIEDAIBIAOYINWEIBENZHIGONGZUOHUOGERENYUANYIN,NANYIBAOZHENGQUANMIANCANYUDIFANGRENDADEFADINGHUIYIHEBIHUIQIJIANYOUCHANGWEIHUIZUZHIDEGEZHONGDAIBIAOHUODONG。DIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIYINGDUIZHEIYINANTIDECHUSHIFANYINGSHI,ZHUBUJIANLIQIDAIBIAOCANJIAHUIYIHEHUODONGDECHUXIJILU,BINGQIETONGGUOXIANGDAIBIAOBENRENHEXIANGGUANBUMENTONGBAODEFANGSHI,DUCUDAIBIAOANZHAOYOUGUANGUIDINGCANJIAFADINGDEHUIYIHEHUODONG。YIZHEIXIEDAIBIAOCHUXIHUIYIHEHUODONGDEJILUWEIJICHU,DIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIZHUBUTANSUOCHUDEYIZHONGGONGTONGDEZUOFASHI,NIANDUXINGDIBIAOZHANGYOUXIURENDADAIBIAOHEPINGXUANXIANJINRENDADAIBIAOHEDAIBIAOXIAOZUDENG,YIJIFARENDADAIBIAOJIJILVZHIDENEIZAIDONGLI。BUGUO,HOULAIDESHISHIBIAOMING,JINJINJILURENDADAIBIAOCHUXIJILUDEBANFA,BINGBUNENGCHONGFENBAOZHENGDAIBIAOMENNENGGOUQUANMIANCANYURENDAGONGZUO。PINGXUANHEBIAOZHANGYOUXIURENDADAIBIAODEZUOFA,YEYINCHULILUNHEFALVCENGMIANDEZHENGLUN。(18)ERQIE,JIUXIAOGUOERYAN,ZHEIYIPUBIANDEZUOFAYEZHINENGDUIBUFENRENDADAIBIAOQIDAOYOUXIANDEJILIZUOYONG。

  ZAIKANDAONEIBUJILIDEYOUXIANXINGZHIHOU,YIXIEDIFANGDERENDACHANGWEIHUIHAIYIJUDAIBIAOFAYAOQIUDAIBIAOYINGGAIHUIYINGXUANMINHEYUANXUANJUDANWEIXUQIUGUIDING,KAISHICHANGSHITUIXINGZUZHIDAIBIAOXIANGXUANMINHEYUANXUANJUDANWEISHUZHIDEZUOFA,YIZHUBUJIANLIQIYITAOZIXIAERSHANGDEJILIJIZHI。ZUOWEIYIXIANGGUANGFANTUIXINGDEGONGZUO,RENDADAIBIAOXIANGXUANMINHEYUANXUANJUDANWEISHUZHIDEZHEIYICHUANGXINDEWEIMIAOZHICHUZAIYU,BIAOMIANKANLAISHIRENDADAIBIAOZAIZHIJIEXIANGXUANMINHEYUANXUANJUDANWEISHUZHI,DANSHIZUZHIZHEIYISHUZHIHUODONGDEZHUTI,ZESHIDAIBIAOSUOZAIDETONGJIRENDACHANGWEIHUI。ZHEIYICHANGSHIYINWEIJUBEIYIDINGDEFALVJICHU,BINGQIEKEYITONGGUODAIBIAOHUIYINGXUANMINXUQIUDEFANGSHIGENGHAODITUIDONGDAIBIAOJIJILVZHI,YINERZAIXIANGDANGYIBUFENDIFANGRENDAZHONGDEDAOTUIGUANG。DANSHIZHEIYIHUODONGTONGYANGYUDAOYIXIENANYIKEFUDEWENTI,ERQIEQIXIAOLIYEJIAOWEIYOUXIAN。ZAIJUTISHIJIANZHONG,RANGJIANJIEXUANJUDERENDADAIBIAOXIANGYUANXUANJUDANWEISHUZHIHUIYUDAOBUSHAOJISHUXINGNANTI,LIRUDAIBIAODAHUIDUANZANDEHUIQIJIUNANYIRONGNAYIDINGSHULIANGDEDAIBIAOSHUZHI;ZHIJIEXUANJUDEDAIBIAOSUIRANBUHUIMIANLINHUIYIQIXIANWENTI,DANSHIZUZHIDAIBIAOSHUZHISUOXUQIUDESHIJIANHEJINGLIYEDUIDIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIGOUCHENGXIANSHITIAOZHAN。ERQIE,JISHIXIANGXUANMINHEYUANXUANJUDANWEISHUZHI,YEYOUYULVZHIJIXIAOYULIANRENJIHUIZHIJIANBUNENGCHONGFENGUAGOU,SHUZHISUOQIDAODEZUOYONGTONGYANGYOUXIAN。

  GENGWEIGUANJIANDEWENTIZAIYU,ZAIYIGEQIANGDIAODAIBIAOYI“JITILVZHI”WEIZHUDEDAIBIAOZHIDUSUOTIGONGKONGJIANNEI,GUOYUTUCHUDAIBIAOGERENJIAOSEDEJILIJIZHI,HENNANDEDAOZHIDUXINGDEKENDING。DIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIYEHENNANRONGNANEIXIEYIGERENMINGYISHELIDAIBIAOGONGZUOSHIERZHIJIELIANXIXUANMINDEZUOFA。YINCI,ZAI2005NIANDEJIANDUFACHUTAIZHIHOU,DIFANGGEJIRENDAZAIDAIBIAOJILIFANGMIANDEYIGEZHONGYAOCHUANGXINFANGXIANG,JIUSHIWEIRAOZHE“DAIBIAOJITILVZHI”ERTANSUOLEYIXIEQIANGHUADAIBIAOZUOYONGDEXINFANGSHI。QIJUTIDEZUOFAZHUYAOBAOKUOYOURENDACHANGWEIHUITONGYISHELIDAIBIAOGONGZUOZHANHETIGAODAIBIAOLVZHIDEWUZHIZHICHIDENG。ZHEIXIEXINDETANSUOZAISHITUJINYIBUJIFADAIBIAOLVZHIJIJIXINGDETONGSHI,GENGJIAQIANGDIAOTONGYIZUZHIHEJITIXINGSHIQUANLI,YINERYEDEDAOLEGAOCENGDEHUIYING。2015NIAN6YUE,ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGZHUANMENZHUANFALEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDANGZU《GUANYUJIAQIANGXIANXIANGRENDAGONGZUOHEJIANSHEDERUOGANYIJIAN》,JIANGXIANXIANGRENDADEZUZHIHENENGLIJIANSHEZUOWEIZHONGDIAN。SHENZHISHISANJIEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDEGONGZUOBAOGAOZHONGYETICHU,YAO“JIANQUANDAIBIAOGONGZUOGEXIANGZHIDU,ZHICHIHEBAOZHANGDAIBIAOYIFALVZHI,GENGHAOFAHUIDAIBIAOZUOYONG。JIAQIANGDAIBIAOSIXIANGZHENGZHIZUOFENGJIANSHEHELVZHIGUANLIJIANDU”。(19)

  JIANYAOHUIGUZHONGGUODIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIDESHANGSHUGONGZUOMAILUOJIUKEYIKANCHU,ZAIDIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIDEGONGZUOZHONG,DAIBIAOGONGZUOYIZHISHIYIXIANGHEXINGONGZUO。DIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIBUDUANCAIYONGGEZHONGCUOSHIJILIHEGUIFANTONGJIRENDADAIBIAOJIJILVZHI,GOUCHENGLEZHONGGUODIFANGRENDAZHIDUCHENGZHANGGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHONGYAOJIZHI。TONGGUODUIRENDADAIBIAOLVZHIGUANLIDEQIANGHUALAITUIDONGDIFANGRENDAGONGZUODECHUANGXIN,BUDANGOUCHENGLELIJIEZHONGGUODIFANGRENDAZHIDUBIANQIANDEYITIAOZHONGYAOXIANSUO,YESHILIJIEZHONGGUODIFANGRENDAQITAGONGZUODEYIGEZHONGYAOBUCHONG。ERQIE,CONGQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDEGONGZUOWENJIANKEYIKANCHU,LVZHIGUANLICHUANGXINSHENZHIYESHILIJIEQUANGUORENDABIANQIANDEYIGEZHONGYAOFANGMIAN。

  三、案例比较

c868彩票网址  BIZHEXUANQUDEBIJIAOANLIWEISHANXISHENGZHENPINGXIANRENDAHESHENZHENSHIPINGSHANQURENDA。RUWUTEBIESHUOMING,BENWENSUOYOUDEJINGYANZILIAODOULAIYUANYUSANGEFANGMIAN:YISHIBENRENLIYONG2018NIANCANJIALIANGDIRENDAZHUBANHUIYIDEJIHUISUOZUODESHIDIGUANCHA;ERSHIZAIHUIYIQIJIANJIQIANHOUDUILIANGDIRENDACHANGWEIHUILINGDAOHEGONGZUORENYUANSUOZUOFANGTAN;SANSHIYOULIANGDIRENDACHANGWEIHUIBANGONGJIGOUSUOTIGONGDESHUMIANZILIAO。

  SHANXISHENGZHENPINGXIANSHIXIBUDIQUYIGEJINGJIXIANGDUIBUFADADEXIAN,XIAXIA7GEZHEN,2018NIANCHANGZHURENKOU5.9WANREN,TONGNIANDIQUSHENGCHANZONGZHI23YIYUAN。SHENZHENSHIPINGSHANQUSHIYANHAIJINGJIFADADIDAIDESHENZHENSHI2017CAISHELIDEYIGEXINGZHENGQU,XIAXIA6GEJIEDAOBANSHICHU,2018NIANCHANGZHURENKOU44.63WANREN,TONGNIANDIQUSHENGCHANZONGZHI605YIYUAN。ERZHEYURENDAYANJIUYOUGUANDEJUTICHAYIRUXIABIAOSUOSHI。

  BIAO1 SHANXIZHENPINGXIANRENDAYUSHENZHENPINGSHANQURENDADEZHUYAOCHAYI

c868彩票网址  XINGZHENGCENGJI JINGJIZHUANGKUANG CHANGWEIHUI RENKOUGUIMO ZHUYAOLINGDAO

c868彩票网址  SHANXIZHENPING XIAN LUOHOU(NONGYE) 1980NIANCHENGLI XIAO LIANREN

  SHENZHENPINGSHAN QU FADA(GONGYE) 2017NIANCHENGLI DA CHUREN

  LAIYUAN:GENJULIANGDITIGONGZILIAOZIXINGZHENGLI。

  YOUBIAO1KEYIKANCHU,WULUNSHISUOCHUDEJINGJISHEHUIHUANJINGHAISHIRENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIDEZISHENQINGKUANG,SHANXISHENGZHENPINGXIANRENDAYUSHENZHENSHIPINGSHANQURENDADECHAYIDOUJIDA,FEICHANGFUHEZUIDACHAYIXINGXITONGSHEJI(the most different system design)DEANLIBIJIAOYANJIU。(20)RUGUOBENWENSUOCHENGXIANDEZAIGEFANGMIANCHAYIDOUFEICHANGMINGXIANDELIANGGEANLI,ZAIDIFANGRENDACHUANGXINGONGZUOFANGMIANJINGLILELEISIDELICHENG,ZEKEYIZHENGSHI,LVZHIGUANLIQUDONGXINGCHUANGXINGOUCHENGZHONGGUODIFANGRENDAZHIDUCHENGZHANGDENEIZAIJILI。XUYAOSHUOMINGDESHI,YOUYUSHANXISHENGZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIDEZHUYAOLINGDAOYIJINGYOUJINLIANGGERENQI,ERSHENZHENSHIPINGSHANQURENDACHANGWEIHUIDEZHUYAOLINGDAOHAIWEIRENMANDIYIGERENQI,YINCIBENANLIBIJIAODENEIRONGBAOKUOQIANZHEDEJINLIANGGERENQIHEHOUZHEDEJINYIGERENQI。ZHEIYANGZUOJIYOUHENGXIANGBIJIAODELIYOU,YEWEITONGYIGEANLIDEQIANHOUBIJIAOTIGONGLEJIHUI。

c868彩票网址  1.ZHENPINGXIANRENDADECHUANGXIN

  2012NIANCHUHUANJIEHOUCHANSHENGDEXINYIJIEXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUILINGDAOBANZIZAIDIAOCHAYANJIUHOUFAXIAN,DANGDIRENDAGONGZUODEXIANZHUANGZHISUOYIBULINGRENMANYI,YIGEZHONGYAODEYUANYINZAIYURENDAGONGZUODENEIRONGBUMINGQUE、BUJUTIHEBUGUIFAN。TAMENRENWEI,RENDARUGUOYAOGUIFANJIANDUDUIXIANGDEXINGWEI,SHOUXIANYAOGUIFANJIANDUZHUTIZISHENDEXINGWEI。ZAIDANGNIANCHUZHAOKAIDESHIQIJIERENDACHANGWEIHUIDIERCIHUIYISHANGXINGCHENGDEWENJIANZHONG,CHANGWEIHUILINGDAOJIUTICHU,YAOTANSUOJIANLIYIGONGZUOXIAOLVHEGONGZUOZHILIANGPINGJIAWEIHEXINDECHUANGXINTUJING,YONGKEXUEDEJIXIAOJIANDUJIZHITUIDONGRENDAJIANDUSHUIPINGBUDUANTIGAO。

  ZAIJUTIGONGZUODETUIXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,GAIXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIZAIQUDEXIANWEILINGDAODEZHICHIHOU,SHOUXIANCONGGUIFANXIANGZHENRENDADEGONGZUORENSHOU,ZHIDINGLE《GUANYUJIAQIANGXIANGZHENRENDAGONGZUODESHITIAOZHIDAOYIJIAN》。SUIHOU,ZAIZHONGGONGZHONGYANGZHUANFAQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDANGZU《GUANYUJIAQIANGXIANXIANGRENDAGONGZUOHEJIANSHEDERUOGANYIJIAN》FABUHOU,LIYONGXINDEJIHUIJIANGXIANRENDADEGONGZUOSHULIWEI6DALEI、120TIAO、300KUANGONGJI1600FENDEJIXIAOBIAOZHUN,BINGTIJIAOXIANWEIYIXIANWEIDEWENJIANYUYIZHUANFA。

  JINGGUOZHUNIANDEMOSUO,ZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIYIJINGJIANLIQILESITAOXITONG,JIXIANZHENRENDAJIXIAOBIAOZHUNTIXI、JIXIAOBIAOZHUNGUANLIPINGJIAXITONG、JIHUAYUSUANJIANDUXITONGHEDAIBIAOLVZHIXINXIXITONG。ZAI2018NIANGENGXINDE《ZHENPINGXIANRENDAGONGZUOBIAOZHUNJIXIAOTIXI》ZHONG,YIGONGBAOKUOLELIUGEJIXIAOBIAOZHUNTIXI,JIZHENPINGXIANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHUIYIJIXIAOBIAOZHUN,ZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIHUIYIJIXIAOBIAOZHUN,ZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIZHURENHUIYIJIXIAOBIAOZHUN,ZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIGONGZUOSHICHA、ZHIFAJIANCHAJIXIAOBIAOZHUN,ZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUICAIZHENGYUJUESUANSHENCHAJIANDUJIXIAOBIAOZHUNHEZHENPINGXIANRENSHIDAIBIAOXUANJUGONGZUOJIXIAOBIAOZHUN。(21)ZHEILIUXIANGBIAOZHUNFENBIEYIBAIFENZHIDEXINGSHI,JIANGXIANJIRENDAGONGZUODEGEGEFANGMIANDOUNARUQIZHONG,YIGONGZUOKAOHEFANGSHI,JIANGXIANJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIDESUOYOUGONGZUOJIGOU、GONGZUORENYUANHERENDADAIBIAODEXIANGGUANXINGWEIDOUNARUZHEIYITAOZONGHEXINGDEKAOHETIXIZHIZHONG。WEILESHENRUTUIJINZHEIYITAOZONGHEXINGDEJIXIAOPINGJIATIXI,ZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIHAILIANXILEXIANGGUANJIGOUGONGTONGKAIFALEZHENDUIRENDAGONGZUODEJIXIAOKAOPINGTIXIDEGUANLIRUANJIAN。

c868彩票网址  ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZHENPINGXIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIDELIUXIANGJIXIAOBIAOZHUNTIXISUIRANSHIYIRENDAGONGZUODENEIRONGWEIBIAOZHUNJINXINGHUAFEN,DANSHIXIDUGEXIANGPINGJIABIAOZHUNJIUHUIFAXIAN,ZHEIYITAOJIXIAOBIAOZHUNYIJINGJIANGRENDADAIBIAODEGEXIANGHUODONGDOUNARULEKAOPINGZHIZHONG。LIRU,ZAIZHENPINGXIANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHUIYIJIXIAOBIAOZHUNDE100FENZHONG,YAOQIURENDADAIBIAOCANHUIRENSHUDADAO100%CAINENGDE3FEN,CANHUIDAIBIAOSHENYIFAYANLVDADAO100%CAINENGDE3FEN。ZAIZHENPINGXIANRENSHIDAIBIAOXUANJUGONGZUOJIXIAOBIAODE100FENZHONG,WEILETIXIANDAIBIAOLVZHIJIANDU,MEINIANYAOANRENDADAIBIAOZONGSHUDE20%QUEDINGDAIBIAOSHUZHIDUIXIANG,CAINENGDE3FEN。(22)WEILUOSHIZHEIYIJIXIAOBIAOZHUN,XIANRENDACHANGWEIHUIHAIZHUANMENZHIDINGLE《ZHENPINGXIANRENDADAIBIAOXIANGYUANXUANQUXUANMINSHUZHIJIXIAOBIAOZHUN》。ZAIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIKAIHUIQIJIAN,RUGUOYOURENDADAIBIAOLIANGCIWEIJINGPIZHUNBUCHUXIXIANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHUIYI,DAIBIAOBENRENDEZIGEJIANGBEIQUXIAO,ZHENGGERENSHIDAIBIAOXUANJUGONGZUOYEJIANGBEIKOUCHU2FEN。

  2.PINGSHANQURENDADECHUANGXIN

  YOUYUSHENZHENSHIPINGSHANQU2017NIAN1YUECAICHENGLI,XINCHANSHENGDEQURENDACHANGWEIHUIDUIYURUHEKAIZHANGONGZUO,ZUICHUBINGMEIYOUFEICHANGMINGQUEDESILU。QURENDACHANGWEIHUILINGDAOZAIZHUDONGXUEXIGEQUXIANRENDAGONGZUODEJIBENJINGYANHOU,SHOUXIANKAISHITANSUOGUOJIAJIGUANZUCHENGRENYUANLVZHIJIANDUGONGZUO。WEICI,QURENDACHANGWEIHUIZHIDINGLE《GUANYUKAIZHANPINGSHANQUGUOJIAJIGUANZUCHENGRENYUANLVZHIJIANDUDEJUEDING》,JIANGYIFARENMINGDE“YIFUYIWEILIANGYUAN”FUZERENJIZHENGFUGONGZUOBUMENZHUYAOFUZERENNARULVZHIJIANDUFANWEI,XIANHOUSHENYILEJIANDUDUIXIANG2017、2018NIANDULVZHIBAOGAO。LIANGNIANNEIYIGONGSUIJICHOUQULE12MINGZHENGFUGONGZUOBUMENZHUYAOFUZERENZAIQURENDACHANGWEIHUIHUIYISHANGKOUTOUSHUZHI;XIANCHANGPINGYILE14GEZHENGFUGONGZUOBUMENZHUYAOFUZERENLVZHIBAOGAO,JINXINGMANYIDUCEPING,CEPINGJIEGUOXIANCHANGGONGBU,BINGXIANGQUWEIBAOGAO,TONGSHICHAOSONGQUZHENGFUHEQUZUZHIRENSHIBUMEN,YITUIDONGRENDARENSHIRENMIANQUANHEJIANDUQUANDEYOUJIJIEHE,ZENGQIANGGUOJIAJIGUANGONGZUORENYUAN“YOURENDACHANSHENG、DUIRENDAFUZE、SHOURENDAJIANDU”DEYISHI。

  WEILEFAHUIRENDADAIBIAOZAIRENDAGONGZUODEZUOYONG,PINGSHANQURENDACHANGWEIHUIZAIXUEXIQITADIFANGDEMINSHENGXIANGMUPIAOJUEZHIDEJINGYANHOU,ZHONGDIANTANSUOJIANLIZHONGDIANMINSHENGXIANGMUDAIBIAOQUANCHENGJIERUSHIJIANDUJIZHI,ZUZHIDAIBIAOJIERUZHONGDIANMINSHENGXIANGMUDETICHU、SHAIXUAN、QUEDING、SHISHI、PINGYIDENGGEHUANJIE。QIJUTIDEZUOFASHI,2018NIAN1YUE,QUYIJIERENDASICIHUIYICHAEPIAOJUECHANSHENGLE20XIANGNIANDUZHONGDIANMINSHENGXIANGMU。SUIHOU,QURENDACHANGWEIHUIYIJUXIANGMULEIXING,ZUZHI87MINGDAIBIAOFENCHENG6GEJIANDUXIAOZU,FENTOUDUIZHONGDIANMINSHENGXIANGMUJINXINGQUANCHENGJIERUSHIJIANDU。ZAIYIJINGKAIZHANDE13CHANGJIANDUHUODONGZHONG,DAIBIAODUIJINZHANJIAOMANDEXIANGMUZHONGDIANGUANZHU、ZHUANTITINGQUYOUGUANQINGKUANGHUIBAO,TICHUJIAKUAIXIANGMUSHISHIDEYIJIANJIANYI。

  WEILETUIDONGRENDADAIBIAOZAIHUIYIQIJIANTICHUDEYIANHEJIANYIDELUOSHIQINGKUANG,PINGSHANQURENDACHANGWEIHUIHAIZAIQUANSHENGLVXIANJIANLILEDAIBIAOJIANYIBANLIGONGZUOBAIFENZHIFENDUANPINGJIAJIZHI,YOUDAIBIAODUICHENGBANDANWEIBANLIJIANYIQINGKUANG,YIBAIFENZHIFANGSHI,FENDAFUHELUOSHILIANGGEJIEDUANJINXINGMANYIDUCEPING,LIANGCIPINGFENANDAFU40%、LUOSHI60%DEQUANZHONGZHESUAN,ZUOWEIZHONGPING,BINGJIANGZHONGPINGDEFENJIEGUOYUJIXIAOKAOHEGUAGOU,XIANGSHEHUIGONGBU,TUIDONGYOUGUANBUMENBANLIDAIBIAOJIANYIGENGZHONGSHIXIAO。

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  3.JIANYAOBIJIAO

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  四、结论与讨论

c868彩票网址  XIANDAIGUOJIADEDAIYIZHIDUQIYUANYUOUZHOU。OUZHOUGUOJIADAIYIZHIDUZAICHUCHUANGZHISHI,DOUSHIYITAOYIJIANZHIDAIBIAOZHIWEITESEDEZHIDUTIXI。SUIZHEYIHUISHIWUDEZHUANMENHUAHEJINGZHENGXINGXUANJUDECHENGSHU,JUEDADUOSHUGUOJIADOUCAILEYITAOFENHUADEZHIDUSHEJI:ZAIGUOJIACENGMIANSHANG,ZHUBUTONGGUOZHUANYEHUAHEZHUANZHIHUADEJIANSHEERSHIYINGYIHUISHIWUDEFUZAHUAJUSHI;ZAIDIFANGCENGMIANSHANG,ZEJIYUDIFANGZIZHIDECHUANTONG,ZAIWEICHIYIYUANJIANZHIHUADETONGSHI,CAIYONGLEYIXILIEXIANGGUANDEPEITAOCUOSHILAISHIYINGZHEIZHONGJUMIAN。

  ZHONGGUODERENDAZHIDUJIANSHEJIYUSHEHUIZHUYIDEJIAZHIERYIZHIQUANMIANJIANCHIJIANZHIHUADEDAIBIAOZHIDU。ZAIMIANDUIDAIYIJIGOUSHIWUFUZAHUADETIAOZHANZHISHI,YIFANGMIANTONGGUOJIEGOUHUAGAIGEERJIANLIQILERENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHERENDACHANGWEIHUIZHEIYIDUTEDESHUANGCENGJIEGOUTIXI,LINGYIFANGMIANYETONGGUOQIANGHUADAIYIJIGOUDEZUZHIHUAJIANSHE,TONGGUOQIANGHUADAIYIJIGOUDEXINGZHENGGUANLINENGLIYISHIYINGDAIYISHIWUFUZAHUADEYAOQIU。

  YUZAOFADEZIBENZHUYIGUOJIABUTONGDESHI,SHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIADEDAIBIAOZHIDUJIANSHEDADUOSHIZAIJINGLIGEMINGZHIHOUYIYIZHONGZISHANGERXIADEZHIDUSHEJILUOJIERZHUBUTUIKAI。ZAIJINGGUOJIBENDEZHIDUSHEJIZHIHOU,WEISHUNYINGJINGJISHEHUIDEBIANQIANERZISHANGERXIADIBUDUANDIAOZHENGDAIYIZHIDUDEJIBENJIEGOU,JIUGOUCHENGLEYIDAOJIBENDEJINGGUAN。ZAIJIBENDEZHENGZHIHESHEHUIJINGJIJIEGOUXIANGDANGWENDINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,DIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIJIUZIRANERRANCHENGLETUIDONGRICHANGGONGZUOKAIZHANDENENGDONGZHUTI。YINCI,QIANQIYANJIUYIJINGQINGCHUDIKANDAO,ZISHANGERXIADESHEJIHEJINGJISHEHUIJIEGOUDEBIANQIAN,CAIGOUCHENGZHONGGUODIFANGRENDAZHIDUBIANQIANDECHIJIUDONGLI。ZAIJIBENJIEGOUXIANGDANGWENDINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,DIFANGRENDAZUOWEIYIGENENGDONGZHUTI,ZHUYAODEXINGDONGMOSHIJIUSHIZONGHEYUNYONGDUOZHONGCELVEERTISHENGZIJIZAIQUANLITIXIZHONGDESHIJIDIWEI。

  BIZHEYAOQIANGDIAODEYIGEJIBENDEYAODIANZAIYU,ZAIJIBENJIEGOUXIANGDANGWENDING,QIEDIFANGGEJIRENDAZUOWEINENGDONGZHUTIERZHANKAIJIBENDEXINGDONGSHI,ZAIZHUYAODESHIJIANNEIDOUSHICHANGWEIHUIZAIXINGDONG。DUIYUCHANGWEIHUIERYAN,WULUNQICAIYONGHEZHONGCELVE,DOUXUYAOTONGGUODUIRENDAZISHENXIANGGUANCANYUZHE,YOUQISHIRENDADAIBIAODELVZHIGUANLILAIQUDONGGONGZUOCHUANGXINDESHIZHIXINGZHANKAI。ZHEIYIFAXIANDEYIYIZAIYU,ZAICHUANTONGDEGUOJIAZHONGXIN、SHEHUIZHONGXINHEDIFANGNENGDONGXINGDEJIBENLILUNMOSHIZHIWAI,TICHULEYIZHONGLIJIEDIFANGRENDACHANGWEIHUIYIGONGZUOCHUANGXINWEITESEDEZHIDUBIANQIANDONGLIJIQISHISHIJIZHI,JINERJIANGXIANQIANCHUYUFENSANZHUANGTAIDEGUOJIAZHONGXINLUN、SHEHUIZHONGXINLUNHEDIFANGNENGDONGLUNDESANZHONGGUANDIANLIANXIWEIYIGEZHENGTILAIJIAYILIJIE:JIZAIJIDINGDEJIEGOUZHIXIA,LVZHIGUANLIGONGZUODEQIANGHUASHIQUDONGDIFANGRENDAGONGZUOCHUANGXINDEDAOZHANKAIDESHIXIANTUJING。

c868彩票网址  QIANQIYANJIUHAIBIAOMING,ZAIJIDINGDESHEHUIJINGJIHEQUANLIJIEGOUZHIXIA,DIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUICHUANGXINKAIZHANDESHOUYAOTIAOJIAN,JIUSHIYOUYIGEXIWANGRENDAGONGZUODEJUMIANYOUSUOTISHENGDERENDACHANGWEIHUILINGDAOQUNTI。BENWENSUOQIANGDIAODELINGYIGEYAODIANSHI,ZHIYOUDANGZHEIGELINGDAOQUNTINENGGOUZHAODAOSHIDANGDEFANGFA,YOUQISHINENGGOUZHAODAOYIXIEGUIFANHEJILIDAIBIAOLVZHIGUANLIDEFANGFABINGQIENENGGOUTONGSHIDIAODONGRENDADAIBIAODEJIJIXINGZHIHOU,CHUANGXINGONGZUOCAINENGGOUSHUNLIKAIZHANBINGCHIXU。DANTONGSHICHANSHENGDEYIGEJIBENDELILUNWENTISHI,ZHEIYANGYIZHONGZONGTISHANGSHIYIDANGZHENGJIGUANDEXINGZHENGGUANLIFANGFAWEIJIBENSILUDEGAIGECHUANGXINMOSHI,GURANNENGGOUZAIYIDINGSHIQINEITISHENGDIFANGRENDAGONGZUODEXIANSHIJIXIAO,DANSHIDUIYUDAIYIMINZHUZHENGZHIJIANSHEERYANDAODIYINGGAIRUHEPINGJIA,ZERENGRANHAISHIYIGEXUYAOGUANCHAHESIKAODEWENTI。

  ①Kevin O’ Brien,"Agents and Remonstrators:Role Accumulation by Chinese People’s Congress Deputies," The China Quarterly,No.138,June,1994,pp.359-380.

  ②Chuanmin Chen,"Getting Their Voices Heard:Strategies of China’s Provincial People’s Congress Deputies to Influence Policies," The China Journal,No.82,2019,pp.46-69.

  ③Tianjian Shi,"Voting and Nonvoting in China:Voting Behavior in Plebiscitary and Limited-Choice Elections," The Journal of Politics,Vol.61,No.4,Nov.,1999,pp.1115-1139.

  ④刘欣、朱妍:《中国城市的社会阶层与基层人大选举》,《社会学研究》2011年第6期,第34-58页;雷弢:《中国收入选民是推动人大选举的中坚力量》,《中国改革》2007年第8期,第37-39页。

  ⑤陈钊、陆铭、何俊志:《权势与企业家参政议政》,《世界经济》2008年第6期,第39-49页;张长东:《在商言政:地方人民代表大会中的企业家》,《学海》2014年第2期,第43-51页。

  ⑥何俊志、刘乐明:《公民自主参选人大代表过程中的新特征》,《上海行政学院学报》2012年第4期,第43-50页。

  ⑦庄文嘉、岳经伦:《政治嵌入,还是嵌入社会——2006-2009年地方人大经费支出的影响分析》,《学术研究》2014年第1期,第35-49页。

  ⑧何俊志:《制度等待利益:中国地县级人大制度模式研究》,重庆:重庆出版社,2005年,第51页。

  ⑨Oscar Almen,"Only the Party Manages Cadres:Limits of Local People’s Congress Supervision and Reform in China," Journal of Contemporary China,No.80,2013,pp.237-254.

  ⑩Melanie Manion,"When Communist Party Candidates Can Lose,Who Wins? Assessing the Role of Local People’s Congresses in the Selection of Leaders in China," The China Quarterly,No.195,Sep.,2008,pp.607-630.

  (11)Kevin J.O’brien and Lianjiang Li,"Chinese Political Rerorm and the Question of ‘Deputy Quality’," China Information,Vol.8,No.3,Winter,1993-1994,pp.20-31.

  (12)Melanie Manion,"‘Good Types’ in Authoritarian Elections:The Selectoral Connection,in Chinese Local Congresses," Comparative Political Studies,No.10,June,2014,pp.1-33.

  (13)Kevin o’Brien and Laura M.Luehrmann,"Institutionalizing Chinese Legislatures:Trade-offs between Autonomy andr Capacity," Legislative Studies Quarterly,Vol.23,No.1,Feb.,1998,pp.91-108.

  (14)Kevin O’Brien,"Chinese People’s Congresses and Legislative Embeddedness,Understanding Early Organizational Development," Comparative Political Studies,Vol.27,No.1,Apr.,1994,pp.80-109.

  (15)Ming Xia,"Political Contestation and the Emergence of the Provincial People’s Congresses as Power Players in Chinese Politics:A Network Analysis," Journal of Contemporary China,Vol.24,2000,pp.185-214; Jun Ma and Muhua Lin,"‘The Power of Purse’ of Local People’s Congresses in China:Controllable Contestation under Bureaucratic Negotiation," The China Quarterly,Vol.233,2015,pp.680-701;何俊志、霍伟东:《从嵌入到规范:中国地方人大制度化路径的新模式》,《华中师范大学学报》2018年第4期,第27-34页。

  (16)庄文嘉:《中国地方人大机构经费拨款的影响因素——基于1994-2007年省际动态面板数据的分析》,《武汉大学学报》2015年第1期,第90-96页。

  (17)何俊志:《制度等待利益:中国地县级人大制度模式研究》。

  (18)腾修福:《评比表彰是促进代表履职的必要手段》,《法治与社会》2015年第5期,第23-24页;闫旭辉:《地方人大常委会不宜考核同级人大代表》,《法治与社会》2015年第5期,第24页;武春:《人大常委会考核同级人大代表合法且值得提倡》,《法治与社会》2015年第5期,第24-25页。

  (19)张德江:《全国人民代表大会常务委员会工作报告——2018年3月11日在第十三届全国人民代表大会第一次会议上》,http://www.npc.gov.cn/zgrdw/npc/dbdhhy/13_1/2018-03/26/content_2052600.htm,2020年2月5日。

  (20)Adam Przeworski and Henry Teune,The Logic of Comparative Society Inquiry,New York:Wilby-Interscience,1970,pp.34-39.

  (21)具体内容可以参见镇坪县人大网站:http://www.zhprd.gov.cn/showperformance.php?id=46&cid=19,2020年2月7日。

  (22)由于代表任期五年,每年20%的比例可以确保所有代表在任期内都有一次向选民述职的机会。

作者简介

姓名:何俊志 工作单位:中山大学政治与公共事务管理学院

转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:孙志香)
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