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民法典时代英国土地信托法的研究价值
2020年10月14日 16:04 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:蒋涛 字号
2020年10月14日 16:04
来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:蒋涛

内容摘要:

关键词:

作者简介:

 

  YIDINGYIYISHANGLAISHUO,MINFADIANSHIDALUFAXIDIANXINGTEZHENGDETIXIAN。YINGMEIFAXIZEWANQUANBUTONG,XINTUOZHIDUSHIQIDIANXINGDAIBIAO。ZHENGRUYINGGUOXUEZHESUOSHUO,ZHENGSHIYINWEIXINTUOZHIDUDECUNZAI,SHIDEYINGMEIFABUXUYAOYINRUDALUFAXIDEMOUXIEMINFAJISHU。YINGGUOTUDIXINTUOFASHITUDIFAYUXINTUOFADEJIAOCHALINGYU,SHIYINGMEIFADIANXINGZHONGDEDIANXING,DANWOGUOXUESHUJIEDUIQIQUESHAOXITONGSHENRUYANJIU,SHENZHIZAIGAINIANSHANGDOUCUNZAIJIAODADERENSHIPIANCHA。《MINFADIAN》DEBANBU,BIAOZHIZHEWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIFALVTIXIJINRULEXINSHIDAI,YANJIUYINGGUOTUDIXINTUOZHIDUJUYOUDUTEDELILUNHESHIJIANJIAZHI。

  满足人民对家族信托的需求

  JIAZUXINTUOJUYOUJICHENGFAWUFAPIMEIDEYOUSHI,YIBANZHIJIANGJIATINGCAICHANWEITUOJISHOUTUORENGUANLI,YISHIXIANCAIFUCHUANCHENGDENGMUDE。ZAICAIFUCHUANCHENGFANGMIAN,YUJICHENGFAXIANGBI,JIAZUXINTUOTEYOUDEJIAZHITIXIANZAI:JIAZUXINTUOTONGGUOSHELISHOUTUOREN,KEYISHIXIANANZHAOWEITUORENSHENGQIANDEYUANWANGGUANLICAICHAN、FENPEICAICHAN(HANSHOUYI),YINERKEYIFANGZHIJICHENGRENBUANZHAOBEIJICHENGRENDEYIZHISHIYONGCAICHANSHENZHISHIHUIHUOLANGFEICAICHAN;FANGZHIYINJICHENGRENBUSHANYUGUANLICAICHANERZAOCHENGCAICHANSUNSHI;FANGZHIZINVFENGECAICHANERDAILAIJIATINGCAICHANDEFENSAN(RUJIATINGQIYE、JIATINGJINGYINGDEGUIMONONGCHANGDENG,RUGUOFENGECAICHANJIANGWUFAZHENGCHANGYINGLI);KEYIANZHAOBEIJICHENGRENDEYIZHISHIXIANSANDAIYISHANGDECAIFUCHUANCHENG(RUBEIJICHENGRENWEITUOSHOUTUORENJIANGSHOUTUOCAICHANDESHOUYIANSHIFENPEIJIQIZINV,QIEZAIMANZUYIDINGTIAOJIANXIA,JIANGSHOUTUOCAICHANZHUANRANGJIQIZHIDINGDESUNBEIJICHENGREN)。ZHEIXIEDOUSHIJICHENGFASUOWUFASHIXIANDE,YINWEIJICHENGFASHI“YICHUIZIMAIMAI”,DUIJICHENGWANCHENGZHIHOUDECAIFUGUANLIHEFENPEIWUNENGWEILI。

c868彩票网址  JIAZUXINTUOYINQITEYOUJIAZHIBIJIANGSHOUDAOGENGDUODEQINGLAI。WOGUONEIDIDIYILIJIAZUXINTUOYU2013NIANZAISHENZHENDANSHENG,ZHIJINQUANGUOYIJINGDASHUQIANLI,QIMENJIANYECONGZUICHUDE5000WANYUANJIANGDIZHI1000WANYUAN,SHENZHIYOUDEXINTUOJIGOUKAIFALE100WANYUANQIGOUDEJIAZUXINTUOCHANPIN。GAIGEKAIFANG40DUONIANLAI,WOGUOZHONGCHANJIECENGSHULIANGYUELAIYUEPANGDA,DUIJIATINGCAIFUCHUANCHENGDEDUOYANGXINGXUQIUYEYUELAIYUEDUO,JICHENGFAYIJINGWUFAMANZUZHEIYIXUQIU。

  《MINFADIAN》JICHENGBIANYUYUANJICHENGFAXIANGBI,XINZENGSHELE“ZIRANRENKEYIYIFASHELIYIZHUXINTUO”DEGUIDING。YIZHUXINTUOSHIJIAZUXINTUODEYIZHONG。ZHEIFANYINGLE《MINFADIAN》DUISHEHUIZHUYIXINSHIDAIRENMINCAIFUCHUANCHENGDUOYANGXINGXUQIUDEHUIYING,JUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。DAN《MINFADIAN》ZAIZHEIFANGMIANMEIYOUGENGDUODEGUIDING。YINGGUOJINDAITUDIXINTUOSHIXIANDAIJIAZUXINTUODELAIYUANHEYUANXING,SHOUTUOCAICHAN——TUDI(HUODICHANQUAN)BEISHIWEIBENJIN,BUKEFENGEHECHUSHOU;TUDIDESHOUYI(YIBANWEIZUJIN)BEIFENPEIJISHOUYIREN;ZAIYIDINGTIAOJIANXIA,SHOUTUORENJIANGSHOUTUOCAICHANZHUANRANGJITEDINGDESHOUYIREN。ZAISHOUTUOCAICHANSHIDONGCHANDEQINGKUANGXIA,RENGRANSHIYONGYUZHEIYIMOSHI。YINGGUOXINTUOFADUISHOUTUORENDEXINYIYIWUYOUZHECHENGSHUDEFALVGUIFAN。YINCI,DUIQIJINXINGSHENRUYANJIUJIANGWEI《MINFADIAN》YIZHUXINTUODEJUTIYINGYONGTIGONGZHONGYAOJIEJIAN。

  为民法典居住权的实施提供参考

  BENZHERENMINZHISHANGYUANZE,《MINFADIAN》GUIDINGLEJUZHUQUAN。QIJIBENYAOYIYOU:JUZHUQUANSHIZHIDUITARENZHUZHAIDEJUZHUQUAN;JUZHUQUANYINGDANGDENGJI,ZIDENGJISHISHELI;JUZHUQUANJUYOUYONGYIWUQUANXINGZHIDENG。《MINFADIAN》GUIDINGDEJUZHUQUAN,ZAIWOGUOMINFAZHONGSHIYIGEXINSHIWU,HAIQUESHAOXIANGGUANDEFALVSHIJIAN,ZAIJUTISHISHIZHONGKENENGHUIYUDAOBUSHAOWENTI,RU:JUZHUQUANYUDISANRENQUANLIRUHEXIEDIAO(ZHAIQUANREN、DIYAQUANRENDENG)?RUHEZAIDICHANJIAOYIANQUANHERENMINJIBENJUZHUQUANZHIJIANJINXINGQUANHENG?FUMUCHUZIMAIFANG,DENGJIZAIZINVMINGXIA,FUMUSHIFOUYOUJUZHUQUAN?RUGUOSHIZINVHUNYINCUNXUQIJIAN,FUMUCHUZIMAIFANGDENGJIZAIZINVMINGXIA,ZAIZINVLIHUNSHIGAIFANGCHANSHIFOUZUOWEIHUNYINGONGTONGCAICHANJINXINGFENGE?RUHEBIMIANLIYONGJUZHUQUANQIZHADISANREN(ZHAIQUANRENHEDIYAWUQUANRENDENG)?

  YINGGUOXINTUOFAJINGLILECONGFOUDINGJUZHUQUANDAORENKEJUZHUQUANDEGUOCHENG,KECONGZHENGFANLIANGFANGMIANWEIWOMENTIGONGJINGYANHUOJIAOXUN。YUDALUFAXIBUTONG,XIANDAIYINGGUOTUDIXINTUOFALVZHIDU,SHIJIEJUEDICHANGONGYOUGUANXIDEJIBENFA:LIANGRENYISHANGDUIDICHANDEGONGYOUGUANXI,JICHENGLIXINTUOFALVGUANXI,ZAIDANGSHIRENMEIYOUMINGQUESHELIXINTUODEQINGKUANGXIA,ZEFALVNIZHICHANSHENGMOSHIXINTUO。ANZHAOYINGGUO1925NIANCAICHANFA(CHUBUFENXIUDINGWAI,XIANZAIRENGRANSHIYONG)DEJINGSHEN,XINTUOSHOUYIQUANBUBAOKUOZHANYONGQUAN(ZAIZHUZHAIDEQINGKUANGXIAZHUYAOSHIJUZHUQUAN,XIAWENCHENGWEIJUZHUQUAN),MUDESHIBAOHUDICHANZIYOULIUZHUAN、BIMIANSHOUYIQUANDUIKANGDISANRENERZUAIDICHANJIAOYI。20SHIJIMOYILAI,SUIZHEOUZHOURENQUANGONGYUEZAIYINGGUODESHENGXIAO,YINGGUOKAISHIZHONGSHIJIBENDEJUZHUQUAN。YI《TUDIXINTUOHESHOUTUORENFA1996》WEIDAIBIAODEDANGDAIXILIELIFAGAIGE,QIZHONGXINRENWUZHIYIJIUSHICONGLIFASHANGRENKESHOUYIRENDEJUZHUQUAN,BINGDUIPANLIFARUHEQUANHENGSHOUYIRENJUZHUQUANYUDISANRENQUANLI(ZHAIQUANREN、DIYAQUANRENDENG)ZUOYUANZEXINGGUIDING。JINNIANLAIPANLIFAGUANYUJUZHUQUANBAOHUDEPANLIYEDEDAOPENGBOFAZHAN。WULUNCHENGWENFAHAISHIPANLIFA,YINGGUOTUDIXINTUOZHIDUZAICHULIJUZHUQUANDEFALVSHIJIANZHONGJILEILEFENGFUDEJINGYAN,ZAI《MINFADIAN》XINZENGJUZHUQUANDEBEIJINGXIA,ZHIDEWOMENJINXINGBIJIAOYANJIU。

  解决“双重所有权”与“一物一权” 的融合问题

  WOGUOXUEJIEYIBANRENWEI,QIYUANYUYINGGUODEXINTUOZHIDUDEJIBENFALVJIEGOUSHI“SHUANGZHONGSUOYOUQUAN”,YUWOGUOJISHOUDEDALUFAXI“YIWUYIQUAN”DEJIBENYUANZEBUXIANGFUHE。YOUXUEZHEZHICHU,WOGUOXINTUOFALIFADUICIWENTICAIQULEHUIBIDECELVE,JI:MOHUGUIDINGSHOUTUOCAICHAN“WEITUO”JISHOUTUOREN,ERFEIMINGQUEGUIDING“ZHUANRANG”JISHOUTUOREN。ZHEIZHONGRENSHIHEZUOFAJIWOGUOXINTUOFADEYINGYONGHEFAZHANDAILAIZHANGAI,YEJIXINTUOYEYIJIRENMINDUIXINTUODEGONGNENGQIDAIDAILAIBULIYINGXIANG。ZHIJIN,WOGUOXINTUORUHEDENGJIHAIMEIYOUWANSHANDEFALVGUIDING,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGSHIYINWEIXINTUOFADUIXINTUOCAICHAN“WEITUO”ZHEIYIMOHUGUIDING,ERXINTUODENGJISHIXINTUOJIANKANGFAZHANDEZHONGYAOBAOZHANG。ZAI《MINFADIAN》XINSHEYIZHUXINTUOQINGKUANGXIA,YICHANZHONGDEFANGCHAN、GUPIAO、ZHAIQUANDENGNENGFOUDENGJIZAISHOUTUORENMINGXIAXIANRANSHIYIGEPOQIEXUYAOJIEJUEDEWENTI。WOGUO《MINFADIAN》CHUSHANGSHUYIZHUXINTUODEGUIDINGZHIWAI,ZAIWUYOUGUANXINTUODETIAOWEN,SIHUYEYUERZHEXIANGCHONGTUDEWENTIWEIJIEJUEYOUGUAN。SHENRUYANJIUYINGGUOTUDIXINTUOFA,HUOKEJIEJUEZHEIYIJIBENLILUNWENTI。

c868彩票网址  SHUANGZHONGSUOYOUQUANYIBANZHIYINGGUOFAZHONGDEPUTONGFASUOYOUQUANHEHENGPINGFASUOYOUQUAN,ZAIXINTUOJIEGOUZHONGDUIYINGDESHISHOUTUORENSUOYOUQUANHESHOUYIQUAN。ZAI1925NIANCAICHANFAGAIGEQIAN,ERZHEFENBIEBEICHENGWEIPUTONGFADICHANQUAN(legal estate)HEHENGPINGFADICHANQUAN(equitable estate)。CONGMINGCHENGSHANGLAIKAN,TAMENERZHESHIBINGLIEDE。CONGXINGZHISHANGKAN,ERZHEDOUJUYOULEISIDALUFAXISUOYOUQUANDEXINGZHI。PUTONGFADICHANQUANSHIDUISHIQUAN,JIKEYIDUIKANGRENHEREN。GENJUHENGPINGFAZHIQINGYUANZE(doctrine of notice)JIQIKUODASHIYONG,HENGPINGFADICHANQUANJIHUSHOUDAOYUPUTONGFADICHANQUANYIYANGDEBAOHU,ERZHEJUYOUJIHUXIANGTONGXIAOLIDEDUISHIQUANXINGZHI。YINER,SHIZHIYIYISHANGDE“SHUANGZHONGSUOYOUQUAN”DEQUECENGJINGCUNZAI。

  JINGGUOXIANDAIGAIGE,XINTUOSHOUYIQUANXINGZHIDEDAOGEMINGXINGBIANHUA。1925NIANCAICHANFAGUIDING:HENGPINGFADICHANQUANJINNENGCHENGWEIQUANYI(interest),DICHANQUAN(estate)JINZHIPUTONGFAQUANLI,JIZHISHAOZAIFALVSHUYUSHANG,SUOWEIDEHENGPINGFASUOYOUQUANBUZAIYUPUTONGFASUOYOUQUANJUYOUTONGDENGDEDIWEI。1925NIANCAICHANFAGAIBIANLEXINTUOSHOUYIQUANDEXINGZHI:GENJUZHUANHUANYUANZE(doctrine of conversion),TUDIXINTUOSHOUYIQUANDEKETICONGTUDIBENSHENZHUANHUANWEICHUSHOUTUDISUOHUODEDESHOURU;GENJUCHAOYUEXIAOLI(overreaching)YUANZE:ZHIYAOSHOUTUODICHANDEMAISHOURENFUHEFADINGZHIFUTIAOJIAN(GOUDIKUANZHIFUJIXINTUOFARENHUOZHELIANGGEYISHANGSHOUTUOREN),BULUNSHIFOUDUIXINTUOZHIQING,JUNBUSHOUXINTUOSHOUYIQUANDEYUESHU,JISHIZAIDENGJIDEQINGKUANGXIAYESHIRUCI。YINCI,XINTUOSHOUYIQUAN(HENGPINGFASUOYOUQUAN)DEDUIWUQUANXINGZHIDEDAOGENBENXINGGAIBIAN,BUZAIJUYOUYUPUTONGFADICHANQUANYIYANGDEDUISHIQUAN。YOUCIKEZHI,SHENRUYANJIUYINGGUOTUDIXINTUOFA,KEWEIJIEJUE“SHUANGZHONGSUOYOUQUAN”YU“YIWUYIQUAN”YUANZEDERONGHEWENTITIGONGLILUNYIJU,CONGERSAOQINGMINFADIANBEIJINGXIAXINTUOFAFAZHANDEZHANGAI。

c868彩票网址  ZHENDUITONGYANGXINGZHIDEFALVWENTI,LIANGDAFAXICONGBUTONGDELUOJIQIDIANCHUFAYOUBUTONGDEJIEJUEFANGAN。ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIYINGHELIJIEJIANRENLEIYOUXIUFALVWENMINGCHENGGUO,XIWANGBENWENNENGCUCHENGFAXUEJIEDUIYINGGUOTUDIFA、XINTUOFADEGENGDUOGUANZHU,WEIWOGUO《MINFADIAN》GONGNENGDECHONGFENFAHUITIGONGCANKAO。

  (BENWENXIGUOJIASHEKEJIJINZHONGDAXIANGMU“XINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESETUDIGUANLIFALVZHIDUWANSHANYANJIU”(18ZDA151)JIEDUANXINGCHENGGUO)

c868彩票网址  (ZUOZHEDANWEI:ZHONGNANCAIJINGZHENGFADAXUE)

作者简介

姓名:蒋涛 工作单位:

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